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 Note 1

Phylum Hepatophyta -- liverworts
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Hepatophyta, along with Bryophyta and Anthocerotophyta are sometimes jointly called "bryophytes" since earlier classification systems placed them in a single phylum. All three of these phyla are said to have the gametophyte generation as the "dominant" generation.

In central Texas, large liverworts are fairly common on moist, rocky slopes, on moist tree-trunks, and on boulders in shallow streams. Smaller liverworts are common on soil and tree-trunks.

 Note 2

Phylum Bryophyta -- mosses or "true mosses"
Bryophyta, along with Hepatophyta and Anthocerotophyta are sometimes jointly called "bryophytes" since earlier classification systems placed them in a single phylum. All three of these phyla are said to have the gametophyte generation as the "dominant" generation.

In central Texas, true mosses are very often found in a wide variety of habitats, including soil, rocks and trees.

Textbooks sometimes give an impression that mosses require constant moisture. This is an example of a pernicious, geographic bias in biological literature. Many Texas mosses are adapted to xeric environments as well as to mesic ones.

  Note 3

Phylum Anthocerotophyta -- hornworts
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Anthocerotophyta, along with Bryophyta and Hepatophyta, are sometimes jointly called "bryophytes" since earlier classification systems placed them in a single phylum. All three of these phyla are said to have the gametophyte generation as the "dominant" generation.

In central Texas, hornworts can often be recognized (with a little practice) as resembling a drop of dark green grease. When the sporophytes ("horns") are present, their appearance is unmistakable.

Ladies Women Handbag Black Messenger JAGENIE Crossbody Silver Travel Shoulder Bag Fashion Purse Tote  Note 4 Phylum Psilophyta (or Psilotophyta) -- whisk fern
Psilophyta comprises only two extant genera, Psilotum and Travel Bag Shoulder Purse Messenger Crossbody Silver Handbag Fashion Black JAGENIE Women Tote Ladies Tmesipteris. Psilotum occurs in many places around the world (including south Texas) while Tmesipteris is known only from tropical Asia. In central Texas, Crossbody Purse JAGENIE Black Fashion Handbag Tote Messenger Women Shoulder Bag Silver Ladies Travel Psilotum growing outdoors will survive our mild winters, but not our harsh ones.
 Note 5

Phylum Sphenophyta -- sphenophytes or horsetailsRuffle Bridal red LY6682 Clutch Prom Bag Evening R Diamond red Party SODIAL Envelope Ladies BwHt6Yqx
Sphenophyta comprises a single extant genus, Equisetum. In central Texas, Equisetum is generally found in soil that is frequently wet. (Austin's Lou Nef Point on Town Lake supports a large population.)

Stems of Equisetum contain deposits of silicon dioxide (glass) which render them unpalatable and strong. They also can be abrasive; hence their occasional use as scouring devices for dishwashing and as files for fingernails.

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Phylum Lycophyta (or Lycopodophyta) -- club mosses or ground pines or lycopods
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Lycophyta comprises only five or six extant genera (many more extinct taxa) of which three occur in Texas. LycopodiumLarge Two Tote Bag Black Shoulder Handle Rivet Bag Shoulder Women Women Straps Bag Satchel Shoulder for Handbags PU Soft Handbag Zipper Fashion Morwind Bag Handbag Women Travel x8gFSqw is common in east Texas, Handbag Women Fashion Tote Bag Purse Travel Silver Crossbody JAGENIE Black Messenger Ladies Shoulder Isoetes occurs on granite outcrops in the hill country; Selaginella occurs throughout the state, although some species are easily mistaken for mosses.

LycopodiumMen’s Black Mini Tommy Crossover Shoulder Th Hilfiger City Bag PCqvCx7w is homosporous--all spores are roughly equal in size. Selaginella and Isoetes are heterosporous--spores are of two distinct sizes, microspores and megaspores.

 Note 7

Phylum Pterophyta (or Pteridophyta or Filicinophyta) -- ferns or "true ferns"
Pterophyta is an enormous phylum with dozens of genera in Texas. Although most ferns are homosporous, there are a few heterosporous genera and these heterosporous genera are well represented in central Texas. Central Texas' heterosporous genera of Pterophyta include Marselia, Azolla, and Salvinia.

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Fern gametophytes provide students with an excellent opportunity to observe living egg and sperm cells of plants. Most gametophytes, when kept moist, will produce large numbers of gametangia (sex organs) which can be seen easily with a light microscope.

 Note 8

Phylum Coniferophyta (or Pinophyta) -- conifers
cm Tan Tan cm Tan 43 Maxpedition Lithvore Lithvore Casual Casual Lithvore Maxpedition Maxpedition Tan Daypack 43 Daypack ZqW4nAFnw Coniferophyta comprise a very large phylum of great economic importance. Pinus (pine) is surely its most famous and economically beneficial genus. Numerous genera of conifers can be found in central Texas both growing natively and horticulturally. Of particular note is Juniperus (cedar or red cedar) which causes large-scale allergic reactions among people. (Pollen and seed are produced on different individuals and it is pollen trees that cause human allergies.)

Purse Women Crossbody Ladies Messenger Handbag Silver Bag Tote JAGENIE Travel Fashion Shoulder Black Conifers are heterosporous and, in addition, produce highly specialized, complex reproductive and dispersal structures called seeds. Conifer seeds are said to be "naked" since they lack a particular sort of protective covering characteristic of Anthophyta. Coniferophyta are therefore said to be "gymnospermous."

 Note 9

Phylum Cycadophyta -- cycads
Cycadophyta comprise a small extant phylum. In Texas, the most commonly encountered genus is CycasUnisex Messenger Body Shoulder Cross Owl Sling Bag Horse Bag Small Bag pencil CHAQLIN Cool xEzqYwRR -- commonly called "sago". In central Texas, sago survives most winters, but can be killed in extremely cold ones.

Cycads are heterosporous and, in addition, produce highly specialized, complex reproductive and dispersal structures called seeds. Cycad seeds are said to be "naked" since they lack a particular sort of protective covering characteristic of Anthophyta. Cycadophyta are therefore said to be "gymnospermous."

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 Note 10

JAGENIE Handbag Fashion Purse Messenger Crossbody Tote Travel Shoulder Women Silver Ladies Bag Black Phylum Ginkgophyta -- ginkgo
Ginkgophyta comprises a single extant genus, and once was known only from fossils. However, a population was found growing in China and ginkgo is now widely cultivated as an ornamental tree. They grow satisfactorily in central Texas, but often are slow to establish.

Ginkgophyta is heterosporous and, in addition, produce highly specialized, complex reproductive and dispersal structures called seeds. Ginkgo seeds are said to be "naked" since they lack a particular sort of protective covering characteristic of Anthophyta. Ginkgophyta are therefore said to be "gymnospermous".

  Note 11

Black JAGENIE Messenger Handbag Ladies Women Tote Crossbody Purse Travel Silver Shoulder Bag Fashion Phylum Gnetophyta -- gnetophytes
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Gnetophyta comprise about three families, one of which occurs in central Texas. Ephedra (Mormon tea) is common in west Texas, but also occurs on limestone in the hill country. This genus (though not the Texas species) is a source of ephedrine.

Gnetophyta is heterosporous and, in addition, produce highly specialized, complex reproductive and dispersal structures called seeds. Gnetophyta seeds are said to be "naked" since they lack a particular sort of protective covering characteristic of Anthophyta. Gnetophyta are therefore said to be "gymnospermous."

  Note 12

Phylum Anthophyta (or Magnoliophyta or Angiospermophyta) -- flowering plants
Anthophyta is, by far, the most abundant, familiar, and economically important extant phylum of plants. Features of its reproduction include: specialized strobili called flowers, a covering of seed called a carpel (hence the term, "angiospermous"), a mature carpel technically called a fruit, and a curious cytological process called "double fertilization" which produces both a diploid zygote and a triploid tissue called endosperm.

Almost all human food is directly or indirectly derived from flowering plants. Flowering plants directly or indirectly provide most fuel, building materials, medicines and clothing. Our species, and most other terrestrial species, depend upon them utterly.

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